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Rules of thumb

 

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The OS grid

Grid definition

 

Definition

To facilitate the design- and building process of open modular objects, an OS-ruler of 60×60cm has been developed next to the basic 4×4cm square. This will allow every participant to apply the grid as a shared design tool while generating new parts, components or structures.

 

The OS rulers

Common design guidelines

will enable everybody to design compatible parts, components and structures independently from one another

 

 

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All OpenStructures should be conceived as interdependent, dynamic puzzles.
This means that they should be designed for disassembly and according to the same dimensional framework (the OS grid).

In order to facilitate their design processes several design guidelines have been developed.
These are rules of thumb that need to be considered while designing any OS part or component.

(Scroll down for more info)

Assembly-techs

Rule of thumb No 1: design for disassembly

Favor assembly techniques that allow deconstruction without damage or loss
in order to facilitate the re-use of components.

Rule of thumb No 2: design with recyclable materials

Favor, whenever possible, 100% synthetical or biological recycable materials for your parts and components
in order to support infinite material cycles. (after disassembly)

Certifiations

Rule of thumb No 3: design from the OS grid

Use the OS grid as a design tool when choosing dimensions, assembly points or interconnecting diameters
in order to make your parts compatible with those of others. (click here for more info)

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A. favor part dimensions that are derived from the OS grid
B. position assembly points on parts according to the OS grid
C. choose part diameters that are derived from the OS grid

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The OS grid is the centerpiece of the whole OS system. It’s the common metrical tool that is shared among all participants, which allows them to design interchangeable parts, components and structures independently from each other.

The grid is built up out of 4×4cm squares. The borders of these squares mark the cutting lines, its diagonals mark the assembly points and its enclosed inner circles define interconnecting diameters.

How to use the grid?
download open_grid.pdf

Designtools

The OS rulers can be applied both physically and digitally as measuring- and design tools.
They are free for all and can be obtained and used by everybody at all time.

Note
Since 60×60cm is a already a frequently used standard within both interiors and logistics, the 60×60cm will be especially suitable for designing interior structures. It will also enable the OS-model to integrate with the existing and thus hybridise our current built environment with new Open Components and Structures.

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Setchup_ruler2

Different ruler types

The 4×4cm square
The 4×4cm square is the most generic ruler and is applied at all scales, from the design of little parts all the way to the design of superstructures.
(download 4×4cm.pdf or 4×4cm.skp)

The 60×60cm ruler
The 60×60cm ruler is mainly applied for the design of interior structures.(download 60×60cm.pdf or 60×60cm.skp)

note:
The OS project is currently focussing on generating parts, components and structures that are directly related to our daily lives (ranging from tools to small living units). Therefor the rulers that are mentioned are designed especifically to generate those kind of pieces and puzzles. Of course one could imagine many more rulers in many other domains (eg. OS-rulers for vehicles or logistical purposes), but for now the OS-rulers are limited to the two that are described below in order to prevent the project from sprawling into too many guidelines and frameworks.

How to use the grid?

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Frame5

image: length, width, height sequence for parts based on the 4×4cm square

Maten2d

image: thickness sequence for construction plates based on the 4×4cm square

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B. Choosing assembly points according to the OS grid

If you choose to apply the OS assembly point pattern when designing a part, the assembly points on this part have to be positioned according to the grid in order to be compatible with other parts.
Assembly points can be marked by using the 4×4cm square or the 60×60cm OS-ruler.

image: assembly pattern samples

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Perforaties2c

C. Choosing interconnecting diameters according to the OS grid

If you choose to apply the OS interconnecting diameters when designing a part, the outer diameter of your part should be either 20mm, 40mm or a multiple of 40mm in order to be compatible with the diameters of other parts.

Diameters can be marked by using the 4×4cm square or the 60×60cm OS-ruler.

image: part samples with integrated OS diameters

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Different compatibility levels within components:

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We can distinguish different compatibility levels, different intensities within the use of the grid.

(scroll down for more info)

Comp1

Level 2 (middle level)

- The element can be disassembled
Some of the individual parts are OS compatible (either through its dimensions, its assembly points or its diameter) and can thus be re-used in other OS components.

image: level 2 sample

Comp2
Comp3

Level 3 (highest level)

- The element can be disassembled
All the individual parts are OS compatible (either through its dimensions, its assembly points or its diameter) and can thus be re-used in other OS components.

image: level 3 sample

Overall all these different component types have specific, grid-related measurements and assembly points.
Some of them are explained in detail below.

Structural build-up of OS structures

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The OS metrical unit

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The 4×4cm square as a cell (scroll down for more info)

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The 4×4cm square can be understood as the basic block of the OS (OpenStructures) system. It is the central metrical unit that is shared amoung all OS designers which allows them to design compatible OS components independently from each other.

(Download 4×4cm.pdf)

Just as a biological cell which is considered the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building bricks of life.
(Wikipedia)

The borders of these squares mark the cutting lines. (multiples of 2cm)

Enclosed diameters

4x4-cuting

Cutting lines

4x4-dril5b

Assembly lines

its diagonals
mark the assembly points.

The enclosed inner circle marks the diameter.
(diameters are multiples of 4cm)

The proportions and assembly points of the 4×4cm square are designed especifically for scalability.
This means that the square can be scaled up or down – through duplication – without losing compatibility between different scales. This will allow the OS-model to generate structures on totally different scales (from tools to houses) that will still have interchangable parts and components.

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Scalability

Grid-scale3

OS Parts

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Parts as tissues (scroll down for more info)

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Open parts can be understood as different configurations of 4×4cm squares, resulting in various building blocks that are all generated within the OS dimensional framework.
They have no function on their own but become functional in combination with other parts.

Go to the parts database

Just as a tissue which is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function.
(Wikipedia)

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OS Components

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Components as organs (scroll down for more info)

Component
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Open components can be understood as parts that are assembled into functional,
self-sustaining entities.

go to the components database

Just as an organ which is formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues
(Wikipedia)

Different component types

We can distinguish various component types,

For example:
within interior structures we can distinuish frames, elements and connectors.

Componenttypes2

Frames have a supporting function, elements fill in other specific functions, connectors facilitate the exchange of water, gas, electricity or wireless signals between two or more elements.

Within frames, several frame types can be distinguished,

For example:
within interior structures we can distinuish box frames, skeleton frames etc.

Frametypes2

Within elements several element types can be distinguished,

For example
Within interior structures we can distinuish integrated elements, top elements, attachments, etc.

Elementtypes2

Within connectors, several connector types can be identified.

For example
Within interior structures we can distinuish water connectors, gas connectors, electricity connectors etc.

Connectortypes

Component combinations

Combinations of all these components shape structures.
(also see open structures)




image: explanatory diagram

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Examples

image: shows samples of possible dimensions and assembly point patterns for frame parts

Frame5

Image: shows examples of possible assembly point patterns for frame parts

Assemblage-frame3

Image: shows examples of possible assembly point patterns for frame parts

Assemblage-structure3

image: shows samples of possible dimensions for attachments

Attachments-measurements

Image: shows samples of possible assembly point patterns for attachments

Attachments-assembly3

image: shows an example of how the OS grid could be applied when assembling a 60×60×60cm interior structure

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OS Structures

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An Open Structure can be understood as an assembly of components, mostly consisting out of a frame – with or without a protecting skin – that contains and supports one or more functional elements. These frames and elements are assembled and connected to each other by joints.
Finally, connectors facilitate the exchange of water, gas, electricity or wireless signals between two or more elements.

go to the structures database

Structures as systems (scroll down for more info)

Just as a group of related organs is considered an organ system. Organs within a system may be related in any number of ways, but relationships of function are most commonly used. For example the urinary system comprises organs that work together to produce, store, and carry urine.
(Wikipedia)

image: explanatory diagram

Just as an organism is usually described as the whole hierarchical assemblage of systems (for example circulatory, digestive, or reproductive) themselves collections of organs; these are, in turn, collections of tissues, which are themselves made of cells.
(Wikipedia)

An Open Superstructure can be understood as the whole hierarchical assemblage of different structures that together function as a stable whole and has the capacities to grow and develop.

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OS Superstructures

Superstructures as organisms (scroll down for more info)

Superstructure8a
Superstructure8c
Superstructure8b

Useful downloads

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Part samples

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Part-thomas
Part-philip

example 4

integration of grid diameter + assembly point pattern
Part by Kristie Van Noort

example 3

integration of grid diameter
Part by Marthe Biezen & Aukje Fleur Janssen

example 2

integration of grid diameter
Part by Philip Lushen

example1

integration of grid dimensions + assembly points
Part by Thomas Lommee

The structural build-up of all open structures follow the modular build-up of our own human body.

4×4cm squares generate parts (like panels or beams).
Parts are assembled into functional components (like fridges or drawers).
Components are put together and interconnected into structures (like kitchens or bathrooms).
Several structures are combined into superstructures (like a house).

Just as …

…biological cells generate tissues (like skin tissue)
An assembly of tissues form a functional organ (like a stomach)
Collaborating organs form a system (like the digestive system)
A set of complementary systems form an organism (like a human being)

Level 1 (low level)

- The component is monolithic, it can’t be disassembled into parts
- The element is somehow OS compatible (either through its dimensions, its assembly points or its diameter)

image: level 1 sample

The OS grid can be applied in 3 different ways: (scroll down for more info)

- by choosing the dimensions for your parts or components according to the OS grid
- by positioning assembly points on your parts or components according to the OS grid
- by choosing interconnecting diameters for your parts or components that are derived from the OS grid

In order for a part to be OS compatible at least one of these three conditions should be fulfilled.
Several combinations (eg. applying both the OS dimensions AND the OS the assembly pattern to a part) are off course also possible but not obligatory. (see part samples)



A. Choosing dimensions according to the OS grid

If you choose to apply the OS grid for the dimensions of a part, at least one of the measurements of this part (length, wideness and thickness or height) should correspond to either 0,125cm / 0,25cm / 0,5cm / 1cm / 2cm and multiples of 2cm in order to be compatible with other parts. (see part examples)

The 4×4cm square or the 60×60cm ruler can hereby be applied as measuring tools.

image: part examples

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Different part types

We can distinguish two part types, namely structural parts and assembly parts.

Structural parts,
like panels, beams etc. together shape a functional component.

Assembly parts or joints,
like screws, bolts or pins, assemble one structural part to another.

image: part samples

image: explanatory diagram

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